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Showing 56 results for Type of Study: Experimental

A . Hasanpoor Dehkordi, H. Motaarefi, M. Ghanad Kaafi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (6-2006)

  Background and Aim: Folic acid is one of the essential and important vitamins for women in fertility ages specially on prepregnancy and pregnancy periods. Several studies showed that acid folic Play role in prevention of fetus abnormalities specially neural tube defects, anemia in pregnant women, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. This study was done to determine whether education effect on knowledge and utilization of folic acid" in women referring to Khoy city health centers.

  Material and Methods: This is a quasi experimental study that was accomplished in Khoy city Health centers. In this study we selected 126 women in fertility period that were referred to Health centers. Samples were chosen in non random sampling method (convenient). Data was collected with a questionnaire through interviews. This study was accomplished in two phases pre and post test. After pretest we teached case group through face to face method. The data were analyzed by SPSS. Descriptive statistic chi-square test and t test were used.


  Results: Results showed that there was a significant difference in knowledge level (P<0.0l) and utilizing of folic acid (P=0.000) between pre and post test, also the results indicated that education program was successful in women with low educational levels.

  Conclusion: According to findings knowledge level and utilizing of Folic Acid were increased in the case group and so education can be successful and effective in improving women's knowledge and practice for using folic acid. According to educational role for nurses so they can change knowledge and practice of their clients toward using folic acid as a necessary.


M. Afshar, S.a Moallem, M. Hasanzadeh Taheri, M. Shahsavan, F. Sukhtanloo, F. Salehi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (2-2013)

  Background and Aim: Food additives, such as sodium benzoate (SB), are used in many food products and drugs to postpone the growth of microrganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of long term consumption of SB on the growth indexes of Balb/c mice.

  Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 female Balb/c mice were divided into 2 experimental (I, II) and one control groups. The experimental groups (I, II) daily received 280 and 560 mg/kg of SB intrapretoneally, respectively. The control group received normal saline in the same way. All injections were done during 10 days before gestation, and then, between the 6th and the 15th of gestational days (GD6-15). The mice underwent cesarean section on GD 18 and their embryos were removed. Then, weighing the embryos and measuring their length were done. The embryos were stained with alizarin red and alcian blue and observed by means of a stereomicroscope. The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software and statistical tests one-way variance analysis, Tukey, and c 2 at the significant level P<0.05.

  Result: Mean weight and crown-rump of the fetuses in the experimental group II significantly decreased in comparison with the experimental group I and the control group. The fetal resorption in the experimental groups I and II significantly decreased in comparison with the control group (P=0.04).

  Conclusion: SB consumption before and during pregnancy can probably induce negative changes of fetal indexes . Thus, it is recommended that pregnant women cautiously use food stuffs containing sodium benzoate, as far as possible.

F. Haghighi, S. Khodaei, Gh.r. Sharifzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (2-2013)

  Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. As the breast plays an important role in female sexuality, cancer diagnosis may evoke negative psychological reactions such as fear, anxiety, and depression and in treating these complications less dangerous proce4dures must be taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of logotherapy group counseling on reduction of depression in breast cancer patients in Birjand


.   Mateials and Methods: A quasi-experimental, pretest/post-test control group was used in our study. Statistical population consisted of breast cancer patients in Birjand city between 2010 and the first half of 2011. The sample included 22 breast cancer patients who were non–randomly divided into intervention and control groups, based on DSM criteria (DSMVR) and Beck’s Depression Inventory, achieved grade 13 at least. The experimental group participated in logotherapy with a group counseling approach for ten 2 hour sessions and the control group did not receive any psychological treatments. SPSS software (V: 13) and statistical tests independent and dependent t were and α=0.05 was taken as the significant level.

  Results: The rate of depression significantly decreased in the experimental group (8.27±4.7, P<0.001), while it was unchanged in the control group.

  Conclusion: Regarding the findings of the present study, it is recommended that, in addition to medicinal treatments, logotherapy should be applied to such patients.

H. Dehghani, T. Salimi1, M Hooshyar, H .fallahzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (2-2013)

  Background and Aim: Organizational commitment subject has been attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. In health care organizations, increasing of commitment and responsibility in human resources is very important, because customers of health organizations are human resources of other organizations. The present study was done to determine the effect of instruction of reducing work hours on organizational commitment of intensive care nurses.

  Materials and Methods: In this semi experimental study, all nurses working in intensive care units were samples. Data collection was done by Allen and Meyer`s organizational commitment questionnaires before the implementation of instruction of reducing work hours and six month after it. Data was analyzed by statistical SPSS 16 software in significance level of P<0.05.

  Results: 65 intensive care nurses participated in the study. The majority of nurses were female (92.3%) and married (70.8%). The mean age of samples in this study was 32.8±7.5 years and mean work history of them was 8.3±7.4 years. The mean total score of organizational commitment before the intervention was 95.2±20.9 and after it was 113.5±16.6 and the changes in the mean total score of organizational commitment and its dimensions before and after the intervention showed a statistically significant difference through increment (P<0.0001).

  Conclusion: Results of present study showed increment of organizational commitment level by significant difference in organizational commitment score and its dimensions after the implementation of intervention. Considering the critical shortage of nurses in 57 countries and importance of retention of nurses especially in intensive units, nurse managers can achieve this by providing the satisfaction of the income and benefits and good working conditions and supporting and encouraging employees by increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment and its dimensions.

M.b. Nikzad, M.e. Afzalpour,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (5-2012)

  Background and Aim: Sedentary living and decrease in muscle strength may predispose to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in type II diabetics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a period of resistance and vibration training on metabolic - cardiovascular risk factors and muscular strength in type II diabetics.

  Materials and Methods: Twenty three male diabetic patients aged 51±8.9 years were divided into 2 groups a control group and a combined resistance-vibration training group. The training sessions covered 12 weeks combined training held 4 times a week (2 days for resistance training, 2 days for vibration training) each lasting about 60 minutes. Resistance exercises were done with 60-70% intensity of one maximum repetition, and vibration training was performed with frequencies 30-35 Hz. The controls did not take part in any of the exercises. Systolic and diastolic BP, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and muscular strength of the knee and the arm were measured employing valid methods. In order to find out the effect of combined resistance-vibration training dependent t-test was used at the significant level P<0.05.

  Results: Combined resistance-vibration training caused a significant reduction in the blood glucose (P=0.01), percent of glycosylated hemoglobin (P=0.01), triglyceride (P=0.001), LDL (P=0.05), systolic (P=0.001) and diastolic (P=0.01) blood pressure, significant increase of HDL (P=0.05), muscular strength of lower extremities and upper extremities (P=0.01 and P=0.05, respectively) in type II diabetics. Moreover, comparison of mean changes between experimental and control groups showed that there were significant differences between the two groups.

  Conclusion: A 12 week combination of resistance and vibration training can be beneficial for type II diabetics because they can attenuate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors.


T. Reihani, T . Pourghaznein, M. Ajam, F. Hasanzadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (5-2012)

  Background and Aim: Nursing education can remain dynamic through innovation and applying new learning and teaching methods. Achieving this goal requires the application of modern teaching methods by university teachers in their teaching plans. The present study was performed to compare the effect of traditional teaching method (based on pamphlets) with lecturing method regarding nursing students' learning and satisfaction.

  Materials and Methods: This semi- experimental study was done on 28 apprentice nursing students, who were divided into two equal case and control groups, in the pediatric ward of Imam Reza hospital. Educational content was presented in the form of educational booklet in the case group and lecture in the control group. Data collection included a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of four sections including demographic information, learning assessment test, satisfaction assessment of students, and an open question after its reliability and validity (Cronbach α =0.82). The obtained data was analyzed using SPSS software (V: 11.5), using descriptive and analytical statistics at the significant level P<0.05.

  Results: Mean score of posttest in booklet group was 17.16±1.18, and in the lecture group it was 15.66±1.45, which showed a significant increase compared to pretest (P<0.001). The rate of learning in pamphlet method was significantly more than lecture method (P=0.015).Besides, students' satisfaction with pamphlet method ( 31.5 ± 7.73) was significantly more (P<0.001).

  Conclusion: Regarding that most of specialized nursing courses are clinically presented during apprenticeship, using textual booklet as a student-centered method is recommended.


Dr Ahmad Nasiri , Mahdieh Poodineh Moghadam,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (5-2012)

  Background and Aim: Chronic renal failure and hemodialysis affect patients' ability due to its debilitating nature. It can cause numerous self-care deficits for patients. Promoting self-care behaviors can help patients to maintain their health and well-being. The present study was performed to determine the effect of educational plan based on Teach Back method on hemodialysis patients' self-care deficits.

  Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study carried out in 2012, thirty-six hemodialysis patients were selected through convenience sampling method from the hemodialysis ward of Birjand Vali-e -asr hospital. Necessary data was collected using self-care deficits questionnaire whose validity had been approved. The questionnaire was filled out through live interview, and an educational plan was carried out using teach-back method considering the deficits diagnosed. One month, after intervention, the questionnaire was filled out again. The obtained data was analysed by means of SPSS software (V: 17) using Wilcoxon test at the significant level P<0.05.

  Results: The findings showed that mean of patients' self-care deficits in seven domains before the intervention were 4.05 ± 1.85, 2.19 ± 1.89, 3 ± 2.17, 1.11 ± 1.23, 2.97 ± 1.34, 2.52 ± 2.41, and 2.80 ± 2.68 in nutrition, skin care, activity and rest, elimination, fluid and electrolytes, drug taking, and mental health respectively. But, after the intervention mean self-care deficits in the seven domains changed to 1.97 ± 1.69 (P<0/001), 0.97 ± 1.59 (P<0/001), 1.58 ± 1.71 (P<0.001), 0.30 ± 0.66 (P<0.001), 0.91 ± 1.50 (P<0.001), 2.52 ± 2.41 (P<0.001), and 2.80 ± 2.68 (P<0.001) respectively. The results revealed that the educational plan had been positively effective in patients' self-care deficits.

  Conclusion: The present study showed that an educational plan based on Teach-Back method can significantly reduce hemodialysis patients' physical and psychological self-care deficits. Therefore, nurses can apply this educational strategy to improve their health.

A. Dehghani, S. Mohammadkhan Kermanshahi, R Memarian,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (5-2012)

  Background and Aim: Multiple Sclerosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of the central nervous system that for some reasons, including occurrence during the youth and not having a definite treatment causes depression in patients associated with disability and recurrence. The present study aimed at evaluating impact of peer education on depression in patients with multiple sclerosis in 2011.

  Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, after non- randomized sampling, the selected subjects were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. In the beginning, five educational sessions were held for the peer group to prepare them for their job. Then, after the preparation of the peer group, they held six educational sessions for the experimental group during two months. Data collection tools were demographic information, DASS 21, and a self-administered questionnaire. The obtained data was analysed by means of statistical tests c 2 , paired t, and independent t at the significant level P<0.05.

  Results: Independent T did not show a significant difference in the depression score the two groups before intervention whereas after intervention a statistically significant difference was observed (P=0.002). Pair t, too, showed a statistically significant difference in the depression reduction in experimental group after peer group performance (P=0.001). However, no statistically significant difference was seen in the score of the control groups depression.

  Conclusion: Since the Peer group education program caused depression reduction in patients with MS the utilization of this program, as an efficient and cost-effective method is recommended.


E. Nohi, F. Borhani, M. Helalbirjandi, Vahideh Ahrary Khalaf,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

Introduction: In recent years, clinical mentorship experiences for nursing students have become popular in nursing education. Peer education can be a useful adjunctive method for clinical skills training The present research was conducted to study the effect of performing mentorship program on self- confidence of nursing students in Imam Reza Hospital of Birjand in 2011. Methodology: The present study was a half-experience in Faculty of Nursing (Islamic Azad University of Birjand).60 students of 4th semester (trainees of department of orthopedics) were randomly divided into two groups (30 students in mentored group and 30 in the non-mentored group). In the mentored group for each 3 students a student of 8th semester was assigned as mentor and in the other group only an instructor was available without any mentor. The data was gathered through self-confidence of ( Montalto,2001( questionnaire (10 questions with favorite validity and reliability of 0.85) in both groups, before and after their training. The data was analyzed using spss16 software with statistical procedures paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and analysis of variance (one-way anova). Data Analysis: Although student, s self-confidence has been high in both models, but there is no significant difference in the non-mentor group. The average of self- confidence score in the mentor group (427/0± 76/3 ) was higher than the non-mentor group ( 347/0±33 /3) and it difference was significant )p<0/001). Conclusion: Results of the study indicate mentorship program provides opportunity for 4th semester nursing students to enhance self-confidence. So it is suggested that clinical curriculum designers use this method as a supplementary educational, not independent method since it only needs not any additional expense.
J. Moradpoor, M. Miri, S. Aliabadi, A. Poorsadegh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

  Background and Aim: Birth of a mentally retarded child could have a negative impact on the structure and function of the family and can subject parents, especially mothers, to physical, psychological, social, and economic tensions. This study investigated the effectiveness of training self-awareness and assertiveness skills based on group therapy on compatibility and self-esteem of mothers of mentally retarded children in Shahrekord in 2009.

  Materials and Methods: This applied and quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test was conducted in 2009. The population comprised of all mothers of mentally retarded children of Shahrekord. From among them, 30 were selected randomly on whom the intervention was performed. The tools used in this study included Bell adjustment inventory and Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Parents were taught self-awareness and assertiveness skills twice a week and for 12 sessions in all. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 15 and paired t test at the significant level of P <0.05. 

  Results: Results of this study showed that training self-awareness and assertiveness skills had a significantly positive impact on the overall compatibility and its components (i.e., social adjustment, home adjustment, and emotional adjustment) as well as the self-esteem of mothers of mentally retarded children (P=0.001).

  Conclusion: Training self-awareness and assertiveness skills is an effective method to improve compatibility and self-esteem of mothers of mentally retarded children.

T. Jafartabatabaee, H. hasan Ahadi, A. Khamesian,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

  Background and Aim: Anxiety and depression are among serious problems in humans' lives which are almost observable among all ages and genders. Optimism is considered as a proper solution to decreasing them both. This paper studied the effects of teaching optimism on university students' anxiety and depression.

  Materials and Methods: This study was a semi-empirical one with a pre-test, post-test, and a control group. All bachelor and master students of psychology at Birjand Azad University were voluntarily given Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck’s Depression Test. 46 students who had both an anxiety score of above 15 and a depression score of above 18 simultaneously were selected and randomly allocated to 2 experiment and control groups with 23 students in each. Both groups were given positive-negative psychology test. The experiment group received seven 80-minute-long sessions of positive-psychology-training program by the researcher twice a week. The control group received no training. Both groups were later given the post-test. The instrument included Beck’s Anxiety and Depression as well as Seligman’s Optimism-Pessimism. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17, independent t-test, and paired t at α=0.05.

  Results: After teaching optimism, results indicate, the experiment groups’ anxiety scores average decreased from 23/74±10/70 to 11/48±6/51 and that of their depression, from 26/70±12/33 to 8/78±6/61 which is statistically significant (p<0.001). Besides, the study increased people’s optimism from 13.13±2.72 to 15.04±2.96 but had no significant effect on their pessimism.

  Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that teaching optimism helps decrease university students’ anxiety and depression however, the pessimism scores average has not been statistically significant in the experiment group after the intervention. Thus, this educational program can be used in university counseling centers in order to decrease anxiety and depression.


Elahe Khodadadi, Shahla Mohammadzadeh, Davood Hekmatpou, Alireza Zohoor,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

  Background and Aim: Cardiac arrhythmia is one of the most common cardio-vascular diseases. Pacemaker, as a curative method in treating patients with arrhythmia,diminishes a lot of their symptoms.Awareness of modern educational methods compared with traditional methods can help instructors to use more effective methods and train more competent nurses so they can provide more proper care for these patients.The aim of this study is to compare the effect of compact disc and group education on nurses’ knowledge and performance regarding pacemaker care.

  Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with two groups, all 40 nurses working in heart wards of educational hospitals of Arak University of Medical Scienceswere selected and allocated randomlyto two groups of Compact Disc and Group Education. Data collection tools included a questionnaire to assess their knowledgeand a checklist to evaluate their performance. Questionnaires and checklists were completed by nurses and the researcher before and one month after education. Data was analyzed using descriptive and interpretive statistical methods and SPSS version 17.

  Results: Knowledge scores means in the two methods of CD and group education increased from 13.40 ± 4.7 and 15.10 ± 7.26 before education to 27.85 ± 2.43 and 25.85 ± 4.25 after education. That of performance increased from 7.40 ± 4.18 and 10.45 ± 7.16 before education to 27.30 ± 1.45 and 24.85 ± 3.22 after education.Mean scores of knowledge and performance in the two methods significantly increased after education (P≤0/0001). There was no significant difference between the two methods concerningknowledge scores means, but as for their performance, the difference was significant (P≤0/0001).

  Conclusion: Although compact disc and group education methods were both effective on nurses’ knowledge and performance, but teaching through compact disc was more effective in increasing performance. Thus, considering its numerous advantages such as its economical efficiency, the possibility to watch included films, etc., it is recommended to use it in educational programs.


R. Zeighami , M. Haghi , B. Kaboudi , , ,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

  Background and Aim: Fever is of the commonest problemsof intensive care unit patients. Fever management reduces metabolic activity and oxygen demand, and thereby mortality will be reduced. Physical methods of temperature reduction can decrease body temperature in a short time, but their effectiveness and side-effects are not the same in different patients especially the highly sick ones. This study compared the effectiveness of active cooling and sponge cooling in decreasing body temperature of febrile patients in intensive care units.

  Materials and Methods: This randomized clinicaltrialwas done on 57 patientsadmitted to intensive care units of educational-care centers in Qazvin and Tehran. Patients were selected by stratified block randomization and divided into sponge and active cooling groups. Samples were subjected to three hours of intervention. The data were analyzed repeated measurement ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis using SPSS software at 0.05.

  Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, body surface area, and body mass index. After three hours of intervention, the mean and standard deviation of temperature reduced from 38.7 ± 0.21 to 37.6 ± 0.55degrees centigrade in the active cooling group and from 38.8 ± 0.25 to 37.1 ± 0.18 in the sponge cooling group (P<0.01) . A fter 120 minutes of intervention, mean temperature in the active cooling group was significantly lower than that of the sponge cooling group (P<0.01) . A fter 180 minutes of intervention, 100% of patients in the active cooling group experienced 1 degree cooler body temperature while in the sponge cooling group, only 65% had the same experience (P<0.02) . Both methods, irrespective of acetaminophen dose received,reduced body temperature in a significant way (P<0.02) , and the acetaminophen dose had no confounding effect.

  Conclusion: Sponge method is an effective way to control the temperature, but the rate of temperature reduction in this method is less than that of the active method. Active cooling method was considered a better way for the rapid fever control, because this method reduced the temperature with a less fluctuating but faster speed than sponging. Hence, a more accurate estimate for the time to achieve the desired therapeutic response is provided for health providers.

  Keywords: Body Temperature Regulation Fever Intensive Care Units

Ahmad Nasiri, Taebeh Amirabadi, Tooba Kazemi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (7-2013)

  Background and Aim : Taking into account the wide variety of problems of patients with heart valve replacement, it stands to reason to educate them to solve their problems. Further, the information needs analysis can increase the effectiveness of educational programs. The present study was performed to determine the impact of a planned educational program on patients' informational needs after heart valve replacement.

  Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental single-group study done with a pre-test and post-test, 31 patients who had undergone valve replacement since 3 years ago participated through the availability manner. Demographic and informational needs analysis questionnaires were completed before the educational program was held. A planned educational program was devised on the basis of patients' informational needs and instructed through 5 successive sessions. One month after the intervention, informational needs were studied, and the difference between levels of informational needs before and after the intervention was analyzed statistically using SPSS software and descriptive statistical tests including mean and standard deviation as well as t-paired parametric and Wilcoxon, Mann Whitney, and Krushall-Wallis non-parametric tests.

  Results: The results of the study showed that before the intervention 80.6% of patients had "high informational needs" in terms of awareness of the nature of the disease which decreased significantly to 35.5% after the intervention (P = 0.000). Also, 51.6% of patients had high informational needs regarding awareness of drugs, 74.2% regarding nutritional diet, 100% regarding activity, and 96.8% concerning complications which decreased to 25.8%, 58.1%, 93.5%, and 67.7% respectively. Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in all domains except for the diet. Intervention's effects on both genders and different ages were compared in terms of different domains of informational needs, and the comparison indicated statistical significance in some domains .

  Conclusion: The results indicate that performing an educational program on the basis of needs analysis decreases such patients’ levels of informational needs and, subsequently, the probability of their problems. Thus, nurses should perform needs analysis before starting an educational program and then design and carry out the program in an organized way.


Elham Imani, Zahra Khademi, Saeid Hosseini Teshnizi, Hadi Yosefi, Gholamreza Mirzadeh, Simin Soudagar, Fariba Asadi Nooghabi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (10-2013)

  Background and Aim: Chronic kidney failure is a progressive and irreversible disorder that impedes the ability of the kidney to dispose waste. Hemodialysis, diet, and fluid restriction are necessary to provide long-term health for patients and ensure their survival. This study aimed to determine the role of face-to-face education on body weight and some serum parameters in hemodialysis patients of Shahid Mohamadi Hospital in Bandar Abbas, 2011 .

  Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, s amples were selected through convenience sampling. Fifty-two patients were selected randomly for the intervention group, and 52 for the control group. The two groups were matched in terms of gender, weight, marital and employment status, education, duration of treatment with hemodialysis, and drugs taken. Following dialysis, the patients in the intervention group received three 20-minute-long training sessions. Serum indices such as hematocrit , blood urea nitrogen , creatinine , sodium , potassium, and phosphorus levels as well as weight gain between two sessions of dialysis were measured before and after training the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS (version 13), descriptive statistics, paired t-test, independent t-test, Wilcoxon, ANOVA, chi-square, Pearson correlation and fisher exact test.

  Results: Results showed that the average weight gain , hematocrit , blood urea nitrogen , creatinine , sodium , potassium and phosphorus levels in the periods before and after the training program had significant differences in the intervention group. Also, the differences between changes in these indicators before and after the training between the two groups were significant (P<0.001) . The serum calcium levels were not of significant difference in both groups before and after the program (P>0.05).

  Conclusion: This study found the favorable effects of education on reducing indicators such as serum sodium, potassium, phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, increasing hematocrit, and maintaining fluid restriction. This can protect hemodialysis patients against the complications of kidney disease. It is recommended that more serious training be done by nurses for this group of patients.

Hamid Momeni, Ashraf Salehi, Abolfazl Seraji,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (10-2013)

  Background and Aim : Depression is one of the most common mental disorders , which is twice as common in women . Since hormonal imbalance is one of the main causes in women, the current study aimed at investigating effects of two herbal remedies, Primrose oil and Vitex Agnus Castus, on depressed women .

  Materials and Methods: The clinical trial study was done on 150 women. They were assigned to two groups of 75. I n the first group vitex agnus castus and in the second group capsules of Evening primrose oil were given for 3 months. B efore the study and one, two, and three months later, depression levels were assessed by Beck depression inventory (BDI) . The data were collected and analyzed by independent t test and repeated measures, using SPSS software. 

  Results: The mean ages of the two groups were 27.9 and 28.8 years, with no statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference in depression levels before intervention and during the first, second and third post-treatment assessments . The lower rates of depression were observed in both groups and there was no statistical difference between them .

  Conclusion: Results showed that both herbs reduced depression in the same extent. However, because of its lower price, Vitex would be more advantageous to use for women with depression . Due to limited similar studies, more research in this area is recommended.

L Fakharzadeh, H Shahbazian, H Salehinia, M Yaghoobi, M. H Haghighizadeh, M Karandish,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (10-2013)

  Background and Aim: Diabetes is a common and costly disease. Given the high prevalence of the disease and the importance of long-term follow-up of patients , there should be an inexpensive method available to clients . Thus, this study aimed at determining the effect of telenursing on glycosylated hemoglobin and anthropometric indexes in diabetic patients.

  Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 64 patients with type 2 diabetes were included, and they were divided randomly into two groups (33 in the case group, and 31 in the control group). The data were collected through laboratory tests and demographic information forms. All patients were trained before the study. However, the case group had phone call follow-ups for 12 weeks. Before and 12 weeks after the start of the study, glycosylated hemoglobin and anthropometric indices were evaluated. The data were analyzed with paired t-test, i ndependent t-test and Chi-Square test using SPSS (version 17).

  Results: Results showed that in the case group, statistical differences between glycosylated hemoglobin and body mass index means before and after interventions were significant (P < 0.05), but insignificant in the control group (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the ratio of waist to hip in case and control groups before and after the intervention (P =0.7 and P =0.4 respectively).

  Conclusion: According to research findings , it seems that telenursing , as a follow-up, can improve glycemic .

S Najjar Lashgari, F Rahim Aghaee, N Dehghan Nayeri,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (10-2013)

  Background and Aim: Children are the most valuable resources in society the more such resources are educated and maintained, the richer and more blessed the society will be in the future. In this line, child to child education has proved as a successful model. This study aimed to assess the effect of child to child education on health awareness of primary school students of Tonekabon in 2011 .

  Materials and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study using a case-control design with a pretest and post-test. From among the 261 students in the population, 154 students meeting the inclusion criteria were selected through cluster sampling. Of this, half were considered for the case group and half for control group. Twelve of the qualified students from the fifth grade were also selected purposefully for educating the third grade students. Data was collected with a questionnaire in two steps – pretest and posttest. The results were analyzed statistically by Chi-square, independent t-test, and paired t-test at 99% confidence level.

  Results: Results show that there is a significant difference between the case and control groups in terms of health awareness before and after the intervention (p<0.001).

  Conclusion: Child to child education has a positive effect on the promotion of health awareness of children. Not only this type of education can increase children's learning but it can also help approach health educational goals.

Soodabeh Bassak-Nejad, Hani Rahimi, Yadollah Zargar, Nastaran Majdinasab,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (1-2014)

  Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system where the patient has several problems including fatigue and interactional problems. The present study aimed to assess the effects of stress management training based on cognitive-behavioral therapy on chronic fatigue and coping strategies in MS patients.

  Materials and Methods: This case-control field study was conducted on 36 MS patients. The population included all MS patients at Ahvaz MS Society. The patients took Fatigue of Krupp Scale, and those with cut-off-point score (above 36) were selected and randomly allocated to case and control groups (each group including 18 persons). Both groups completed Endler and Parker Coping Style Questionnaire as pre-test. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.87 as measured by Cronbach's alpha. The case group received 10 sessions of stress management group therapy, while the control group had no intervention. The data was analyzed by covariance analysis at the significant level p<0.05 in SPSS (version 16).

  Results : Mean of chronic fatigue and coping strategies of problem-oriented, emotion-oriented, and social diversion was not significantly different in both groups before the intervention. However, the overall mean of chronic fatigue in the case group decreased from 46.75±8.19 to 31.75±9.5 (p<0.001) those of their coping strategies of problem-oriented and social diversion increased from 51.68±14.14 to 67.25±6.19 (p<0.001) and from 22.12±4.93 to 27.50±3.01 (p<0.001) respectively. Their emotional-oriented scores mean decreased from 52.81±9.60 to 37.25±6.48 (p<0.001), yet their scores mean decrease of avoidance-oriented coping was not significant.

  Conclusion: Stress management training based on cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced fatigue and improved coping skills in MS patients. It cannot, however, modify their avoidance-oriented coping in the short run. They need longer-term training programs so that they can better interact with family and society and refrain from avoidance.

Zahra Danae Sij, Mohammad Dehghani Firoozabadi, Gholamreza Sharifzade,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (1-2014)

  Background and Aim : The migraine headache is of the most common causes of headache, and some psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, in many cases accompany the headache. Some research results indicate the effectiveness of behavioral psychotherapy in reducing migraine headaches. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on depression, anxiety, and reduction of migraine headache.

  Materials and Methods : In this clinical trial, 19 women with migraine, whose anxiety and depression had been diagnosed based on DSM IV criteria and Beck's anxiety and depression tests, were provided with cognitive-behavioral stress management for 10 weeks. Beck's tests were used to compare the recovery rate of anxiety and depression. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 15) using paired T-test, Wilcoxon, and Kruskal-Wallis tests at the significance of p≤0.05.

  Results : In this study, cognitive-behavioral stress management was significantly effective in reducing depression, anxiety (p≤0.001), and migraine headache occurrence (p=0.004), and there was a significant difference between pre- and post-test scores (p≤0.001).

Conclusion: Cognitive-behavioral stress management is effective on depression, anxiety and migraine headache, and can be used in combination with drug therapy.

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