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Showing 65 results for Type of Study: Systematic Review

Gh. Mahmoodi Rad, M. Anoosheh, F. Alhani ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2005)

  Competencies include motivation, personal traits, skills, and knowledge. In this article root's CBE, definition, kinds and executive steps were evaluated. To implement a competencies-based training program, four steps need to be taken:

  1- Define tasks and activities that workers are expected to perform.

  2- Standardize competencies to clarify roles and responsibilities of workers. 3- Defme the training curricula.

  4- Evaluate.

  Compared with the traditional approach, the competency based approach potentially leads to individualized

  flexible training, transparent standards, and increased public accountability.

N Naseh, T Khazaie, S Kianfar, R Dehghan, S Yoosefi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

  Background and Aim: In recent years, there has been an increase in the trend for cesarean section. Due to surgical complications, financial costs and mother's long period of hospitalization, the normal way of delivery is suggested. Cesarean rate in Khorasan was estimated to be 28/1 in 1999, though the desired rate in the world was 15 per cent for 2000. This study was performed to define cesarean rate and causes and complications in Vali-e-Asr hospital in Birjand.

  Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, which cross-sectionally was carried out, 1500 pregnant women referring to Vali-e-Asr hospital were studied. A questionnaire in 4 portions was filled out at mothers’ bed, in delivery room, operation room, and women's ward. Data were analyzed by chi square test in SPSS software. (P<0.05)

  Results: From 1500 pregnant women in this study 895 (59.7%) had a normal delivery and 605 (40.3%) by Cesarean. There was a significant relationship between age, job, education level, number of pregnancies, previous delivery, live births, abortion number and the route of delivery (P<0.05). The comparison of mother's complications with delivery route was significant, but not for neonatal ones.

  Conclusion: Cesarean choice rate is high and intervention programs are necessary to change women attitudes toward it and to increase the knowledge of painless delivery to reduce Cesarean.

T Kazemy, Gh.r Sharifzadeh,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

  Background and Aim: Since Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developed and developing societies, as well as its significant difference of epidemiologic status in men and women, the current study was carried out to assess AMI in Birjand city within 10 years.

  Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, we reviewed all the records in medical charts and administrative files of hospitalized patients due to AMI from 1994-2004 in Birjand. Data were collected through a devised questionnaire by two educated nurses and the supervision of a cardiologist. Then data were analyzed with SPSS software using t test and chi square (α=0.05).

  Results: Out of 918 patients, 71.9% were male (M) and 28.1% were female (F). The women were older than men, a statistically significant estimate (mean age: 65.62±10.56 in female, 58.98±12.11 in male). Two risk factors were more common in women: hypertension (50% in F, 24.6% in M, P<0.001) and diabetes (17% in F, 9.8% in M, P=0.002). But smoking was higher in men (13.7% in M, 36.3% in M, P<0.001). In-hospital mortality was higher in women but not significantly. (10.4% in F, 8.6% in M, P=0.42). The mean of fasting blood sugar (FBS), cholesterol (Chol), triglyceride (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher in women but only FBS, Chol and DBP were significantly higher than men (P<0.01).

  Conclusion: Women have worse prognosis than men after an AMI. This may be explained by older age and the higher incidence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in women.

M Mogharrab, M Ghanad Kafi, M Salehi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

  Background and Aim: Nurses engage in most duties related to clients' treatment and recovery. Performing nursing care with high quality results patient satisfaction and help them for self-care. So this study conducted to determine the patient satisfaction of nursing care in medical-surgical wards of Birjand hospitals.

  Materials and Methods: In This descriptive study, 300 patients discharged from medical-surgical wards in research period by purposeful sampling. Patients were interviewed from 2 hours before discharging. Patient satisfaction of 5 roles of nurses were assessed by 3 item Likert scale

  Results: In total score patients27.2% highly, 66% moderately and 6.8% mildly were satisfied. P.S. of different roles of nursing was: treatment role 11.6% mild, 48.8% moderate and 39.6% high communication 5.2% mild, 52% moderate and 42.8% high management 28% mild, 61.2% moderate and 10.8% high educational role 27.2% mild, 58% moderate and 14.8% high and protective 21.2% mild, 53.6% moderate and 25.2% high. There was significant relationship between P.S. and age, sex, marital status, ward, job and type of insurance variables.

  Conclusion: Decreasing unnecessary works of nurses, increasing communication between client and nurse, and continuous education of nurses, make positive attitude toward nursing and reflecting to community, decrease hospitalization period and treatment costs.

Z Ali Abadi, S Kafaie, K Sarchahi, A Poor Sadegh, M Kazemi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

  Background and Aim: Herniated disk is common among nurses, especially who are working in heavy and hazardous wards such as operation rooms, surgery, emergency wards and ICU. The present study was designed to determine prevalence of herniated lumbar disk among nurses working in two educational hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences.

  Materials and Methods: This descriptive analyctical study was conducted in all nurses working in the two educational hospitals of the University of Medical Sciences. Data was collected by questionnaire that contained demographic information, Job experience, history of back pain, work shifts, symptoms of herniated lumbar disk and procedure of diagnosing herniated disk. After completing the questionnaires and evaluating them, those suspected to have herniated disk e.g. those suffering from back pain and who had the main signs of herniated disk were referred to a neurologist for final diagnosis. The data were analysed by chi-square test, t-test at α =0.05.

  Results: Prevalence of herniated lumbar disk among nurses in these two hospitals was 12.1% and prevalence of back Pain was 73%. Mean age of those having herniated disk and those not having it were 39±7.6 and 33±8.4 respectively, there is a significant difference (P=0.01). The prevalence of herniated disk in nurses working in morning shift and those working in other shifts were 38.5% and 8% respectively, that there is significant difference (P<0.001). Prevalence of herniated disk in nurses with more than 15 years job experience (23%) and in those with less than 15 years (8.1%) showed significant difference (P=0.01).

  Conclusion: According to the findings Prevalence of herniated disk is higher among nurses working in morning shift, have more than 15 years experience, and those working in heavy and hazardous wards. In order to reduce the incidence of this disease, nursing administrative should pay attention to periodic rotation of nursing personnel, increase of nursing personnel in morning shift and training about the principles of proper body mechanic.

O Motamed Rezaei, M Moodi, M Mohammadi, Z Amini Nasab,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (8-2010)

  Background and Aim: One of the most important health objectives in the first years of child’s life is to achieve a balanced and correct nutrition. This study has been done with the purpose of determining the knowledge and attitude of mothers about children nutritional behavior referring to urban health centers in Birjand.

  Materials and Methods: To enter this descriptive- analytical study, mothers with children under 5 who referred to Birjand urban health centers, have been selected. Through questionnaire the obtained data was analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square test, ANOVA (one-way), Tukey statistical Test and Pierson correlation coefficient of the significant level (P<0.05).

  Results: From whole 294 cases of mothers there was a significant difference in awareness and attitude of them according to their education levels. (P=0.002). 83.7% were aware about the required action to absorb iron. 65.6% were informed about the start time to consume iron drop. 82.7% were aware of minerals and beneficial vitamins and 64.6% about the complication of vitamin A deficiency. The mothers’ awareness of nutrimental behavior and their attitude had been evaluated in the average and good terms respectively.

  Conclusion: Considering the average level of knowledge and attitude of mothers about nutrition behavior in children, a need to retrain family physicians and the staff about the importance of nutritional behavior is felt.

T Kazemi, Gh.r Sharifzadeh, A Zarban, A Fesharakinia,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, but its relationship with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in early age is poorly documented. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of obesity in premature AMI.

  Materials and Methods: In this case-control study we assess 94 consecutive patients with AMI before the age of 50 years and 94 age-and sex- matched neighborhood healthy controls without a history of cardiovascular disease. Definition of obesity based on the body mass index (BMI> 30).

  BMI was calculated as weight in kg divided by height in square meters. Waist circumference was measured at the horizontal level of the umbilicus and WHR was a ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference measured at the horizontal level of the maximal protrusion of the gluteal muscles. Data collected and entered to SPSS and analysed by t-test and chi-square.

  Results: The mean of BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) was significantly higher in case groups [BMI (27.1±4.4 in case and 25.7±4.4 in control group P= 0.04), WHR (0.93±0.07 in case and 0.91±0.06 in control group P= 0.01)]. Prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) is higher in case groups (27.7% in case, 14% in control P=0.021, OR= 2.35, CI%95= 1.12- 4.93 ).

  Conclusion: In this case-control population-based study, obesity and higher WHR are independently associated with the premature AMI.

M Yaghoobi, N Taheri, A Raoof Saeb, K Shirzaie, S Kazemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: Diabetes is a chronic disease with a high incidence in Iran and the world which needs many researches for preventions. This study was carried out to determine the quality of life in diabetic patients referring to Parsian Diabetes Clinic in Mashhad.

  Materials and Methods : This analytic-descriptive study was done on 156 diabetic patients referring to Mashhad Parsian clinic with the use of simple in-access sampling and special questionnaire about quality of life in diabetic patients. SPSS was applied to analyze data by descriptive tests as: t test, one-way variance analysis, tukey test, and correlation coefficient (P<0.05).

  Results : In this study, results showed that the level of quality of life was average in the sample group. Also, according to theses results, there were significant statistical correlations between quality of life and sex (P=0.04), education level (P=0.006), job (P<0.001) and hospitalization history (P<0.001).

  Conclusion : Regarding to significant correlation between quality of life and education level, job, sex and hospitalization history, it is recommended to plan regular educational programs for patients, mental and financial supports and diabetes screening in the society to decrease complications related to this disease.

A.m Alizadeh, A Rostamian, Kh Saeedpour, M Hemmati, Z Khorasani, M.a Mohagheghi, M Khatami Moghaddam, M Mousavi3,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: Drug interaction includes the effect of a drug, food or anything that can induce changes in the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of a certain drug. The aim of the present study is to assess drug interactions of bedridden patients in three Tehran hospitals.

  Materials and Methods: This retrospective research was accomplished on 400 bedridden patient’s dossiers in three hospitals of Tehran city at secondary half of 2006 year . Questionnaire was used according to Hansten classifications to gather information from available data.

  Results: Dossiers assessment showed 1087 visits and 2610 drug order. 168 dossiers (42%) were found having drug-drug interactions (568 cases). Drug interactions were severe (4.4%), moderate (47%) and mild (48.6%). Antibiotics had the commonest (27.5%), while the neuroleptics and digitalis (0.5%) and bronchodilators (0.3%) brought about the least drug interactions.

  Conclusion: Our findings showed that the drug prescription doesn't follow a correct logic and is still increasing in comparison to the past.

M.h Namaei, R . Hanafi Bojd, F Zojaji, S Shafie,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background : Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that causes severe infections in humans and animals. This study investigated the prevalence of toxoplasmosis infection in women in pre marriage stage in Birjand.

  Methods : This cross-sectional study was done in 2008. By randomized-simple sampling, we evaluated the anti Toxoplasma antibody (total antibody) titer in 300 women in pre marriage stage referred to provincial health office in Birjand. Total antibody against Toxoplasma gondii in serums of participants was measured, using ELISA method. Antibody titer above 20 IU/ml was considered positive. To investigate factors associated with infestation, a self-made questionnaire was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the spss software program, v. 11 and logistic regression test (α=0.05).

  Results : The mean age of participants was 21.7 ±4 years with a minimum of 14 and maximum 30 years and most of them (68.7%) were living in urban areas. Majority of participants were students (51.2%) and housewives were in the next rank (25.8%). 37of the total participants (12.33%) were seropositive. We found a significant relationship between consumption of soft-boiled egg and antibody titer against Toxoplasma gondii (P=0.035). No significant relationship between antibody titer against Toxoplasma and age, residence, occupation, history of consumption of non-industrial produced eggs as well as uncooked vegetables was found.

  Conclusion : As there is significant relationship between Toxoplasma infection and consumption of soft-boiled eggs, training the families in the prevention of toxoplasmosis infection is recommended.

S Kaheni, Gh.r Sharifzadeh, H Jani, P Taheri, H Nejat, A.m Sadeghi, A Esmaeili,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: Although males' participation in family planning programs improves living standards and national development, just a few men welcome these programs. Based on this preface, the present study was conducted to determine level of knowledge and attitudes of male staff working in health centers of Birjand University of Medical Sciences about Vasectomy.

  Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study was performed on 247 male employees of health centers of Birjand in 2010 and the data was collected through questionnaires including three parts: personal data, knowledge gauge and attitude gauge. Those were filled in by married men who had been chosen by census-based method and then the collected Data was analyzed through SPSS software and descriptive statistical methods.

  Results: Based on findings obtained from the personal information, 30.4% of people who had taken part in this survey were less than 30 years old, 36% of them were between 31 and 40 and 33.6% were over 40. People who had graduate diploma were the most frequent and those above the Bachelors were the least frequent with the quota of 48.6% and 6.1 % respectively. 53.8% of the individuals had no college education and 2% had an academic degree. The results also showed that 21.4% and 54.3% of people participating in this survey, had poor awareness and average knowledge respectively and 24.3% of whole were well aware. The results also revealed that 44.5 and 25.2% of people -who were asked in this survey- had poor and average attitude respectively and 29.6% of the whole had good attitude. Besides, there was a significant relationship between the individuals' level of awareness and their income (P=0.001). The results showed that there is also a significant relationship among individuals' attitude, amount of income, (P=0.001) and the length of their marriage (P=0.01).

  Conclusion: According to the results of the present study it seems necessary to devise a plan in order to enhance men's awareness and attitudes about vasectomy. It would not be practical except through classes and training programs to create incentive among men to increase their awareness and performance.

Sh Tabiei, S.a Saadatjoo, S.z Hoseinian, M.s Naseri, L Eisanejad, M Ghotbi, H Tahernia,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: In Iran, 65% of the aged people suffer from cardiovascular diseases that need nursing care in all levels. To enhance the nurse's knowledge and attitude towards prevention of senile disabilities and disorders, especially in case of their occurring leads to reduction if disabilities, morbidity and mortality and an increase in elderly independencies. The present study was conducted to investigate nurse's knowledge and attitude towards care delivery to the aged people.

  Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study that was conducted by census methods, all the nurses working in internal, surgery, and special critical wards of educational hospitals participated in the study. Data collection tool was a questionnaire which was developed in three parts: Demographic information, questions relating to knowledge, and attitude terms. Data analysis was performed by SPSS Software and by using one-sided variance analysis, t test and Pearson correlation coefficient in P<0.05.

  Results: Totally, 81 nurses were studied 72.8% of them were nursing school graduates and 44.4% were between 20-30 year of age. 42% had less than 6 years of job background. Mean knowledge score was 8.65±3.37. In this regard, 21% of nurses obtained high and 53.1 % of them low scores. Mean attitude score was 41.44±3.81, 23.87% of nurses obtained high and 55.6% of them low scores. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude with demographic information.

  Conclusion: Results of this study revealed the poor knowledge and attitude of nurses about care delivery to elderly people with cardiovascular diseases. This poor knowledge and attitude can be improved by continuous planned education and by planning retraining courses and holding educational workshops for nurses.

Mohammad Reza Miri, Malekaneh, Abolghasemi, Ahmadi, Ghasemi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: Patient satisfaction is one of the concepts which today has gained a special significance in the area of medical cares, since it is only through satisfactory services that a medical system can fulfill its missions. Patients’ views must be taken into account while evaluating the success of health care services. Therefore this study was planned with the purpose of gauging patient's satisfaction from public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Birjand.

  Materials and Methods: 250 patients referring to Birjand medical diagnostic laboratories were studied through a multilevel sampling method. First a state and two private laboratories were selected through cluster sampling and then the patients were selected through random sampling method. Data collection was made through questionnaires composed of 23 questions, including biographic, patient services and laboratory facilities questions, answered through direct interviews with the patients. For data analysis we used independent- t-test and unilateral variance analysis at the level of α<0.05.

  Results: The cases studied were 49% men, and 51% women, 87% from urban areas, 30% with elementary school education, 32% with high-school diploma, and 37.5% with university degrees, 75% of them had come to the laboratories on the advice of their doctors, in 46% of the cases it was the first time they had come to the laboratories, in 19% the second time, and the remaining 35% more than second. The average patients’ satisfaction score, in provided services was 46.83 ± 4.74 out of 55, and the average score in laboratories Facilities was 19.59±2.81 out of 25. No significant difference between the type of laboratories (state or private) and patients’ satisfaction score, as well as, sex and education of the patients with their satisfaction score was observed. But the difference between the number of references of the patients and their satisfaction was significant (P<0.05).

  Conclusion: With respect to the satisfaction of the patients from the provision of services and the facilities of the medical diagnostic laboratories we can conclude that services provided in such laboratories are of such a good quality that they have been successful in gaining patients’ satisfaction, although they should try to improve the quality of their services.

M Mogharab, A Shayeste Roudi, Z Rezaei, S Meliroudi, M Hajinejad, K Salarkhani,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)


  Background and Aim: Depression is one of the four major diseases in the world and the most common cause of disability due to problems during adolescence. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the level of depression in female students in Birjand.

  Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytical study was done on 450 female high school students in Birjand in 2009-10. Proportional stratified sampling was applied. The questionnaire was a validated 21 enquiries Beck Depression Iranian test and demographic information. The data were analyzed by Descriptive and deductive statistics and SPSS with 95% confidential interval.

  Results: Most students were studying in the second grade (35.1%), the humanity field (23.1%), and public schools (57.8%). Their parents were mostly under high school educated (56.9%) and had free occupations (36. 2%) and were housewives (84.2%). Generally, students were 21-30 years younger than their parents. Mostly student were the middle child in sequence(42.2%) and had brothers and sisters and lived in a family with 4-6 children.158 cases (41.1%) were not depressed and 265 cases (58.8%) had depression. 30.2% of these were mildly depressed, 19.3% moderately and 9.3% severely depressed. Only depression was statistically significant related with the type of high school variable (P=0.006).

  Conclusion: With regard to prevalence of depression in high schools, it is necessary to devise measures to identify and treat depressed students by mental health units and health centers in schools.

J Mofateh, M.r Mofateh,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (2-2011)

  Background and Aim: The medical society assumes smallpox eradication as its biggest victory in the recent half century, and AIDS as its disastrous defeat. This study investigated the level of awareness of people recovering from addiction in Sarayan County regarding AIDS.

  Materials and Methods: This investigation was a descriptive cross-sectional study on 121 addicts who referred to the sites for recovery from addiction in Sarayan county in 1388 using a census method and through a questionnaire composed of two parts: the first part of demographic characteristics such as the last degree and the second part of questions related to measuring awareness about transmission routes of AIDS and points the disease is found, prevention and protection measures. A positive score was awarded for each correct response. Collected information was analyzed on SPSS software by chi square (α=0.05).

  Results: Of 121 studied addicts 30.6 percent had a limited knowledge about AIDS and 59.5% had an average level. A moderate and poor level of knowledge was observed in 78.5% about the points where the disease is found and in 63.7% about transmission routes and 39.5% in prevention methods.

  Conclusion: Knowledge about AIDS and its transmission routes and the places the virus found was poor. Furthermore, it is not acceptable regarding prevention methods. The necessity of continuing education in this field is felt.

R Esmaeili, A Izadi, M Esmaeili, K Omidi,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2011)

  Background and Aim: Researches show that to teach thinking skills is a priority in educational programming of education centers. Critical thinking is one of the thinking education methods. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Critical thinking on bedridden patients care process in nursing students.

  Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done on 30 female nursing students in clinical training of Gastroenterology as the case group of critical thinking and further 30 control students as the traditional system. The mean of improvement in the 2 groups was compared by independent t test and the mean of the scores before and after education.

  Results: The results showed that the mean age and the two previous semester scores were not significantly disparate in the case and control groups. The mean of study improvement scores had a significant increase after education in both groups (P ˂ 0.005), though the increase was more considerable in the case group (P ˂ 0.05 versus P ˂ 0.4).

  Conclusion: The results showed that educational status in the two groups developed but not so much in the case group versus the control. We propose a study on graduated nurses received a high level of critical thinking for a long time in future.

N Ghomian, L Hafizi, M Saghayan,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2011)

  Background and Aim: Post cesarean endometritis and wound infection remain significant morbidities despite use of strategies to prevent these complications. Cesarean delivery is the most common major abdominal surgery. We investigated the effect of preoperative vaginal preparation with Povidone-Iodine on postcesarean endometritis and wound infections.

  Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 526 women undergoing cesarean delivery were selected randomly. Exclusion criteria were: Preterm pregnancy, (GA<37), placenta previa, severe anemia (Hct<30), Chorioaminoitis, Diabetes, Meconium Amniotic Fluid, Obesity (w>114b Kg), Multifetal gestation, Prolonged induction (>10h), Arrest descending in station ≥0, Prolonged premature rupture of membranes (>18h). Subjects received either standard abdominal scrub alone or abdominal scrub with an additional vaginal preparation with povidone-iodine solution. All subjects received prophylactic antibiotic at the time of umbilical cord. Each subject’s postoperative course was reviewed for development of endometritis (temperature ≥38.4 accompanied by fundal tenderness occurring beyond the first postopereative day in the absence of evidence of other infection), and wound infection.

  Results: Postcesarean endometritis occurred in 3.4% of subjects who received a preoperative vaginal preparation and 4.6% of controls (P=0.50).Wound infection occurred in 1.5%of subjects who received preoperative vaginal preparation and 1.9% of control. There was no measurable effect of a vaginal scrub on the development of postcesarean endometritis or wound infection.

  Conclusion: Preoperative vaginal scrub with povdone-iodine before cesarean had no effect on the incidence of endomeritis or wound infection.

M Kanani, F Hasanzade, T Reyhani,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2011)

  Background and Aim: Arteriovenouse fistula (AVF) is the most suitable vascular access in hemodialysis patients. Dysfunction of fistulae is the most common reason for a second intervention and recurrent hospitalization. The aim of this study is to ascertain duration of function and complications of arteriovenousfistula in the hemodialysis patients.

  Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study. We studied 94 patients who underwent hemodialysis in Emam Reza and 17 Shahrivar hospitals of Mashhad. The data collecting instrument was questionnaire that has two parts. The first is demographic and the second part is related to documents ) for example cause of renal failure, duration of fistula and age of patients). The data was analyzed with by chi-square, t test and Pearson correlation.

  Results: Results showed that from 94 participated patients, 56 patients (59.6%) were male and 36 patients (40.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 50.3±16.8 year with minimum 18 years and maximum 86 years. The mean duration of function fistula was 34.3±45.19 month, the minimum duration of function fistula past of using has been 2 week and maximum 280 month (until the research). The most common sequel was aneurysm (58.5%). The most common reason of Fistula failure was surgical technique. We find significant relation between site and AVF survival rate (P=0.003). AVF survival rate at the wrist was more than elbow and thump. We did not observe any significant difference between duration of function fistula with ages, sex and diabetes (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Our results showed that complication of fistula is lower in the wrist, so distal Vascular is not recommended for high complications. The rates of complication no correlate with age. Since this finding isn't correlated to pervious studies and little sample, we purposed to perform this study in higher sample .

M Zangooei, Gh.r Sharifzadeh, A Karimi, H Gheytas,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2011)

  Background and Aim: Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM) is one of the most common obstetric complications and the most difficult problem in neonatal medicine, which makes mother and her fetus at risk. It is also the main cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. Despite its frequent occurrence, there are some controversies how to treat it. This study was performed to determine the effect of antibiotic versus corticosteroid, antibiotic and tocolytic consumption for patients with PPROM (in 28-32nd week of conception) on short term neonatal outcomes.

  Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial in which a total number of 64 women with PPROM were divided into two groups of case and control. In the case group, mothers received corticosteroid, antibiotic and tocolytic and the Control group just received antibiotic. By using SPSS software data were analyzed in independent t tests and chi square in P˂0.05.

  Results : There were not any significant difference in the mean upgar scores (P=0.32), sex distribution (P=0.8), birth weight of neonates (P=0.67), the mean length of hospitalization (P=0.07), and prevalence of infant death (despite being less in case group) (P=0.67) in the two groups.

  Conclusion : Results showed that the incidence of neonatal outcomes was not significant in the two groups but though they were less in control group. We suggest more clinical trial studies to clarify the results of corticosteroid antibiotic and tocolytic treatment on neonatal outcomes.

S Aliabadi, N Hatamizadeh, R Vameghi, A Kazemnejad,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (6-2011)

  Background and Aim: About 10% of the world's population is affected by disabilities one third of which are children. Parental compliance with children's rehabilitation programs have important role in overall effectiveness of therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of parental compliance of disabled children who attended outpatient rehabilitation clinics in Birjand city.

  Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional descriptive study, data was collected from parents of 92 disabled children who were attending outpatient rehabilitation clinics (occupational therapy, speech therapy and physiotherapy) in Birjand city by interview and using a semi structured questionnaire. The test-retest reliability and validity of which were 0.72 and 0.94, respectively. Parental compliance with regular attending to therapy sessions, doing exercises at home, providing rehabilitation equipments and providing educational materials were assessed. SPSS V.16 software was used for analysis of data.

  Results: About 48.8% (44 of 92 parents) were complied with regular attending to sessions (i.e. they took part in 90% or more of therapy sessions) and 70% (42 of 60 parents) were complied with performing exercises for children at home, (i.e. they had performed 50% or more of exercises). About 77% (47 of 61 parents) were complied with providing rehabilitation equipments and finally 72.7% (16 of 22 parents) were complied with providing educational materials facilitating rehabilitation (i.e. they had provided 90% or more of recommended items).

  Conclusions : It seems imperative to make every effort to find barriers of parental compliance with disabled children's rehabilitation programs and help parents to overcome those barriers.

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